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伴 恒信
バン ツネノブ
大 学:経営学部 経営学科
担当科目(大学) 教育史,教育課程論,教育方法論,教育課程論
研究室 本館4階
オフィスアワー 前期 (木)10:50-12:10 後期 (水)10:50-12:10
E-mail: bann@po.osu.ac.jp
教育テーマ:  教育理念・倫理・教育実践力を兼ね備え、国際的にも幅広い視野と教養を持った教員を養成する。
研究テーマ: 教育社会学、生涯学習論、国際比較教育学、道徳・市民性教育を研究分野とし、道徳的社会化の国際比較研究、価値教育に関する環太平洋諸国国際共同研究、道徳・市民性教育の国際的な調査研究などに携わる。
略歴: 1979年 広島大学大学院教育学研究科博士後期課程単位取得
1979年 国立教育研究所
1980年 文部省大臣官房調査統計課
1982年 文部省学術国際局ユネスコ国際部企画連絡課ユネスコ総括係主任
1983年 UNESCO(国連教育科学文化機関)職員 (ドイツ、ユネスコ教育研究所勤務)
1984年 鳴門教育大学講師
1986年 鳴門教育大学助教授
1994年 ニューヨーク州立大学バッファロー校客員研究員
1999年 鳴門教育大学教授
2007年 国立大学法人鳴門教育大学大学院学校教育研究科教授(大学組織改編)
2015年 岡山商科大学教授
2015年 国立大学法人鳴門教育大学名誉教授
2022年 岡山商科大学特任教授

業績: 主な学術論文
The Methodological Characteristics of Psychohistory
Psychohistory, which sets up its purpose of seizing the human subjects on the basis of the methodology of psychiatry, would be expected to contribute to the sociology of education in terms of theory and methodology; it intends to refine the theory of human development and of group consciousness on one hand, and the metholology on the other which can deal with the qualitative aspects of historical events.
Psychohistorical approach can be divided into two basic types, namely the great-man pasadigm (E. H. Erikson) which concentrates on a historical great-man on the one hand and the shared-psychohistorical-themen (R. J. Lifton, K. Keniston) which is observed in people exposed to particular kinds of collective experiences on the other. Their signs could already be seen in Freud's historical studies such as “Woodrow Wilson” coinciding with the former and “Totem and Taboo” corresponding with the latter. But these Freud's studies fell into reductionism depriving them of the historical peculiarity, because he applied his theories of psychiatry excessively to the objects.
So, psychohistory tries to overcome the two forms of reductionism by means of the following two methodologies, which constitute the basic characteristics of psychohistory.
First, in order to overcome the reduction on the time-axis connected with teleology, the dialectic characteristic would be applicable. For example, Keniston finds the dialectic contradictions between the value-free technism and the subjective anarchism within the dominant knowledge sector of technological society. In addition to this, the identity crisis, the most characteristic view of the Erikson's epigenetic developmental theory, is the constituent concept under which the internal conflicts of a person can be joined to the social and historical contradictions.
Second, the reduction on the space-axis connected with methodology could be overcome by the characteristic of structuralism. Lifton gives the general idea of symbolic immortality to a mental process maintaining an inner sense of continuous symbolic relationship, over time and space, with the various elements of life. The symbolic immortality in subclassified into the five modes. These modes convert into another modes each other in history, and also gain the ideal integration as a whole. The method of deductive abstraction that makes clear the latent structure hidden behind the reality is usually called the method of structuralism.
Two methodological characteristics examined above are now being integrated through mutual study and endeavour of psychohistorians.

(3)"Japanese Student Activism in the 1970s"Higher Education.Vol.9. No.2,共著,pp.l39-154
The Local Structure of the Educational Lags
There offered many types of analytic frameworks which enable us to understand the phenomena of educational pathology organically. Although there are many differences in the perspective of the methods of classification such as individual vs. group, these frameworks have a common assumption that pathological phenomena are the results of the dysfunction of education.
On the other hand, there exists another theoretical standpoint that explains social change as a fundamental mechanism which discloses those phenomena. W.F. Ogburn, having formed an adequate conception of “Cultural Lag”, formulated an idea that different rates of progress among spheres of cultural system cause some serious problems of lags. Having followed the model of Ogburn's, R.G.Corwin developed the theory of educational lags.
In this study, the writer defines two types of educational lags namely input lags and output lags in keeping with the theory of Corwin's. Assuming “policy” as the agency that especially exerts a dominant influence upon education, the writer also analyzes over a period of three decades since the World War II in the light of the two types of educational lags.
To begin with, basing on “Input Lag” type, the writer attempts to make the quality of educational resources including the environment of education as a subject matter of study. The writer, therefore, focuses on the lags between the input variables and economic system, and also gives his diagnosis of the degree of lags with the aid of multiple-regression analysis. On the contrary, in considering the “Output Lag” type, the writer takes stock of a situation in which input variables after passing through the educational process transform themselves into some outcomes not in keeping with the original objectives. For example, the diversification of high school courses aiming at quick training of skilled laborers have produced many human talents which soon became obsolete. This phenomenon is institutional lag which originates form the lack of long term prospects in the fields of education.

(7)"The Characteristic Features of Moral Socialization: A Comparison of Japanese and Australian Children", International Review of Education, Vol.41, Nos.1-2,単著, p.73-96,1995.
The object of this study, based on surveys conducted in Japan and Australia, is to examine how certain factors in family and school affect the socialmoral behaviour of pupils. Such factors include relations with teachers, after-school activities, friendships, and time spent helping parents with the housework. To measure the effect of these factors, the study used three indices of social-moral behaviour, showing: (1) the degree to which children conformed to social norms; (2) their behaviour in relation to teachers, family and friends; (3) their ability to find appropriate moral responses in different situations. A number of interesting contrasts were revealed between Australian and Japanese schools. The results showed that the moral education received by Japanese children is not translated into their own behaviour. The author concludes that there is an urgent need to establish moral education based on investigations into the real experiences of children.

Thema dieser Studie, die auf in Japan und Australien durchgeführten Beobachtungen basiert, ist eine Untersuchung darüber, wie gewisse Faktoren in Familie und Schule das soziale und moralische Schülerverhalten beeinflussen. Solche Faktoren beinhalten Beziehungen zu den Lehrern, Aktivitäten nach der Schule, Freundschaften und für die Hilfe bei der Hausarbeit aufgewendete Zeit. Zur Feststellung der Auswirkungen dieser Faktoren verwendete diese Studie drei Indizien für soziales/moralisches Verhalten, die folgendes berücksichtigten: 1) den Grad, bis zu welchem Kinder sozialen Normen entsprechen, 2) ihr Verhalten in Bezug auf Lehrer, Familie und Freunde, 3) ihre Fähigkeit, angemessene moralische Antworten auf unterschiedliche Situationen zu finden. Zwischen australischen und japanischen Schulen zeigten sich einige interessante Kontraste. Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, daß die von japanischen Kindern erhaltene moralische Erziehung nicht in ihr eigenes Verhalten übertragen wird. Der Autor schließt damit, daß ein dringender Bedarf an auf realen Erfahrungen von Kindern basierender moralischer Erziehung vorhanden ist.

Cette étude, qui se fonde sur des enquêtes menées au Japon et en Australie, a pour objet d'examiner l'influence de certains facteurs familiaux et scolaires sur le comportement socio-moral des élèves. On entend par ces facteurs les relations avec les enseignants, les activités extra-scolaires, les relations d'amitié et le temps consacré à aider les parents dans les travaux ménagers. Pour évaluer l'effet de ces facteurs, cette étude a utilisé trois indices de comportement socio-moral permettant de déterminer 1) dans quelle mesure les enfants se conforment aux normes sociales, 2) leur comportement vis-à-vis des enseignants, de la famille et des ami(e)s, et 3) leur capacité à apporter des réponses morales adéquates dans différentes situations. Certaines divergences intéressantes sont apparues entre les écoles japonaises et les écoles australiennes. Les résultats ont fait ressortir que l'éducation morale inculquée aux enfants japonais ne se reflétait pas dans leur comportement. L'auteur en conclut qu'il est urgent d'instituer une éducation morale fondée sur les expériences vécues par les enfants.

(9)"Moral Orientations of Schoolchildren in the United States and Japan", Comparative Education Review, Vol.43, No.1,共著,pp.64-85,1999.
While a number of studies have examined the relation of contextual factors and academic achievement in Japan and the United States,this may be the first quantitative study to consider the link between these contextual factors and moral orientations and behavior-especially for such a young group of children. The consistency of the findings relating to the contextual factors between this and earlier studies attest to the reliability of the methods employed here for probing moral orientations and behavior.
The factor analysis reported earlier suggests the centrality of respect and responsibility as core dimensions of morality. The American system appears to be more successful in conveying an orientation of respect to students, whereas the Japanese system is more successful in instilling a sense of re¬sponsibility. As an explanation for the Japanese stress on responsibiliy,Chie Nakane reminds us of the long-standing bias in Japanese culture, deriving from the Confucian heritage, towards a stress on what individuals should do as contrasted with what they have a right to do. Americans,by way of contrast,place a greater stress on individual rights and on what individuals want to do. Japanese teachers,in our interviews,expressed some embarrassment in dwelling on abstract virtues such as respect for others and honesty,preferring rather to focus on the appropriate behavior in particular situations. Eshun Hamaguchi refers to this as “contextualism" (kanjin-shugi). In con¬trast,the American teachers and parents were more comfortable discussing abstract virtues,especially those relating to individuality.
As the analysis of the determinants of moral behavior indicates,school factors are critical in improving the morality of children. To foster moral behavior,the results of the analysis indicate that it is advantageous to make academic work rewarding to a wide range of children and to make school environments comfortable for them. The high expectations of teachers for children and the positive consequences of academic achievement fuel the activities and morality of students. There are,however,some important societal differences. It would appear that the explicit pedagogical actions of schools,especially the encouragement and admonitions of teachers,have a stronger effect on the morality of children in Japanese than they do in American schools. In contrast,in the American case, the school's influence on moral behavior is more associated with the satisfaction that children derive from their academic work and their peer relations. Also in the United States it would appear that those school settings that establish a closer relation to real life (as indicated by their encouragement of the discussion of current events) have the greatest influence on youth's moral behavior. The school factors that have the biggest impact in the U.S. case may be less amenable to modification through explicit school policies as compared with the salient factors in the Japanese case.
While there are these differences,the surprising conclusion of this study is that the determinants of moral behavior in the two societies are essentially identical. The school seems to provide the primary influence on moral behavior,and among school factors a student's academic performance and his or her sense of liking school appear to be the most important factors in shaping desired moral behavior. Of course,salience of particular factors can change over time,both as a reflection of the changing context and policy determinations. The findings reported here provide encouragement for those educators who seek,through shaping the family and school context,to influence the moral orientations and behavior of young people.

A Historical Review of the “Social” Contribution of the Sociology of Education to Educational Problems
In considering the issue of “the contribution of the sociology of education to dealing with educational problems, ” the author evaluates various research outcomes from the perspective of how they help to meet the practical demands of society for the clarification and management of educational problems, rather than from the traditional perspective of their contributions to scholarly developments. The products of the sociologists of education belonging to the Japan Society of Educational Sociology, therefore, are analyzed within the following frame of reference:(1) the social conditions under which the educational problems are raised, and the social needs to be responded to, (2) researches conducted by sociologists of education and their consequences in social context, and (3) thee valuation and positioning of these researchers from the standpoint of educational administrators.<BR>Adopting an overview of the “social” contribution of the sociology of education, the author finds that there are two periods in Japan's postwar history when researchers attempted to deal with the problems of education in remarkable ways. Both of these movements were initiated by the mass media. The first was the proposal for educational pathology, as advocated by leading educational sociologists such as Shigeo Kono, Sachiko Kikuchi, and Michiya Shimbori, at time, from the latter half of the 1960s, when many problems of education, such as the overemphasis on intellectual development, testing, cram schools, dropouts, and youth delinquency, arose in the context of the excessive focus on preparation for entrance examinations.<BR>Bullying and school refusal (the recent term in Japan is “school nonattendance”) both emerged as social issues in the middle of the 1980s, when the media reported on several cases of children committing suicide after suffering from bullying at school, and when it was reported on television that bullying sometimes is a cause of school refusal. Some sociologists of education, such as Youji Morita and Mitsuru Taki, endeavored to investigate the actual condition of those problems and to clarify the background of the phenomena, utilizing questionnaire research. After demonstrating the results of their researches, Morita and Taki had been given opportunities and funds from the Japanese Ministry of Education to continue their research, and they have contributed to proposals and the formulation of the educational policies as members of government advisory committees.
(17)"The Comparative Study on Moral-social Behavior of Children Between Japan and China",The Proceedings of the Fourth Japan-China Teacher Education Conference(Naruto University of Education),共著,pp.79-88,2011.
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(22)教育病理の分析と処方箋 共著 1977年 教育開発研究所
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(47)Values Education for Dynamic Societies: Individualism or Collectivism, 2001, The University of Hong Kong Press
(48)世界の道徳教育 共著 2002年 玉川大学出版部
(49)子ども支援の教育社会学 共著 2002年 北大路書房
(50)道徳教育の基本資料とその理解 共著 2006年 ニチブン
(51)発達・制度・社会からみた教育学 共著 2010年 北大路書房
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(54)学級規模と指導方法の社会学 共著 2014年 東信堂
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(61)「学区割と学校間ならびに学校内格差」 共著 「教育と医学」 1978年
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(63)“Japanese Schooling" 単著 International Review of Education Vol.36,No.2 1990年
(64)「生涯学習・県別診断(前・後編)」 共著 「生涯フォーラム」1-2月号 1991年
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(86)「アメリカの道徳教育の歴史」 単著 「指導と評価」3月号 2015年
(87)「世界の中での日本の先生」 単著 「児童心理」No.1042 2017年



(1)分野 道徳教育の国際比較
テーマ 民主主義理念と次世代市民の道徳性育成の歴史的展開と将来像に関する研究
説明 本研究は、人類が近代史の中で生命を賭して勝ち取ってきた民主主義と、その民主主義社会を担う次世代市民の道徳性育成の歴史的展開を位置づけるとともに、EUやユネスコを通じて今新たに提唱されている地球規模の視点から人類共生の民主主義社会構築への動向と次世代に対するグローバルなィズンシップ教育の道徳的含意を明らかにしようとするものである。